Nutritional management of hyperphosphatemia in uremic dialysis patients2017-01-26 08:44
Nutritional management of hyperphosphatemia in uremic dialysis patients
Hyperphosphatemia in chronic kidney disease, especially in patients with end-stage renal disease common complications in dialysis patients the incidence rate is up to more than 80%, hyperphosphatemia can significantly increase the incidence of dialysis patients with vascular calcification and cardiovascular events. Therefore, it is an important guarantee to improve the quality of life and prolong the life of patients with hemodialysis.
Control of hyperphosphatemia
70% of the phosphorus in the body is excreted in the urine in the form of inorganic salts. Therefore, hyperphosphatemia is mainly due to impaired renal function caused by phosphorus excretion disorder. In most cases, hyperphosphatemia has no special symptoms, but for dialysis patients, when skin itching, pain, cramps, cardiovascular disease, fracture, limb ulceration and other symptoms should consider the existence of hyperphosphatemia.
For dialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia, the level of serum phosphorus was mainly controlled by dialysis, diet and drugs.
Dialysis: under the guidance of a doctor dialysis, remove excess phosphorus in the body to reduce the concentration of phosphorus.
Diet: to choose a relatively small amount of phosphorus in food or special cooking operations to reduce the intake of phosphorus in the diet, reduce the level of serum phosphorus.
Drugs: the use of phosphate binders to reduce the absorption of phosphorus in food, so as to reduce the level of blood phosphorus levels.
High phosphorus foods
Both animal and vegetable foods are rich in phosphorus. Common
High phosphorus foods:
Dairy products: milk, yogurt, cheese, yogurt, fermented milk, etc.
Dry beans: red bean, mung bean, black bean.
Whole grains: lotus seeds, barley rice, brown rice, whole wheat products etc.
Visceral: liver, heart, gizzard etc.
Nuts: almonds, pistachios, cashews, walnuts, sesame seeds, etc.
Other: egg, eggs, cocoa etc.
High phosphorus seasoning, chili powder, curry powder, sesame etc.
High phosphorus processed foods: sausages, ham and hamburgers and other fast food
High phosphorus drinks: coffee, tea, carbonated drinks, beer and other general protein rich foods containing high nutritional and dialysis consumption, strictly limit the phosphorus intake will cause inadequate intake of protein, easily lead to malnutrition. Therefore, in the choice of food in patients with renal dialysis, can not simply consider the content of phosphorus in food.
High calcium and low phosphorus food - calcium and phosphorus can inhibit each other's absorption, eat more low phosphorus high calcium foods can effectively reduce the level of blood phosphorus, such as milk, soy products, sesame, etc.. Note that many drugs are combined with phosphorus containing calcium, such as calcium carbonate, calcium acetate, so you need to regularly check the blood calcium level.
Potato starch and protein content of these foods -- less, mainly to provide energy, to ensure that the intake of other high quality protein, such as taro, yam, potato, potatoes or wheat starch etc..
Vegetables and fruits - fruit and vegetable foods, although high in potassium, phosphorus content is very low, but also a good source of minerals and vitamins. Therefore, the blood potassium dialysis patients daily intake of 400-500 grams of vegetables and 100-200 grams of fruit to meet the nutritional needs of the day, it will not cause damage to the kidneys.
The amount of vitamin D, vitamin D can promote the absorption of calcium to maintain blood calcium and phosphorus levels have certain advantages. Vitamin D in foods mainly from animal food, is the most abundant Cod Liver Oil, animal liver and egg yolk. Animal liver potassium, phosphorus content is high, can change the processing method
Measures to reduce phosphorus content in diet
Foods that contain high levels of phosphorus, such as yeast, animal offal, and nuts
The same processing method, phosphorus and potassium are soluble in water, so the fish meat, using hot water to the water before cooking processing, can also be boiled after abandoning soup consumption, this operation can not only reduce the phosphorus intake, and have too much influence on protein.
The above is the hemodialysis patients with hyperphosphatemia nutrition management, is very important for the diet of patients with uremia for hyperphosphatemia in patients should pay attention to diet containing food, so as not to aggravate the condition.